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DTAA Between India & Iceland


Agreement For Avoidance Of Double Taxation And Prevention Of Fiscal Evasion With Iceland

Whereas the annexed Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of Iceland for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income signed in India on the 23rd day of November, 2007 shall come into force on the 21st day of December, 2007, being the date of receipt of the later of the notifications after completion of procedures as required by the respective laws for the entry into force of this Agreement, in accordance with Article 30 of the said Agreement.

Now, therefore, in exercise of the powers conferred by section 90 of the Income-tax Act, 1961 (43 of 1961), the Central Government hereby directs that all the provisions of the said Agreement and Protocol annexed hereto shall be given effect to in the Union of India with effect from the 1st day of April, 2008.

Notification : No. S.O. 241(E), dated 5-2-2008.

ANNEXURE

AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDIA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF ICELAND FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME

The Government of the Republic of India and the Government of Iceland, desiring to conclude an Agreement for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income and with a view to promoting economic cooperation between the two countries, have agreed as follows :

Article 1
PERSONS COVERED

The agreement shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2
TAXES COVERED

1. This Agreement shall apply to taxes on income imposed on behalf of a Contracting State or of its political sub-divisions or local authorities, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.

2 There shall be regarded as taxes on income all taxes imposed on total income, or on elements of income, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property and taxes on the total amount of wages or salaries paid by enterprises. 
3. The existing taxes to which the Agreement shall apply are in particular :

(a) in India : the income tax, including any surcharge thereon (hereinafter referred to as “Indian tax”) ;
(b) in Iceland :
(i) the income taxes to the State (tekjuskattar ríkissjóõs) ; and
(ii) the income tax to the municipalities (útsvar til sveitarfélaganna), (hereinafter referred to as “Icelandic tax”).

4. The Agreement shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes that are imposed after the date of signature of the Agreement in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes that have been made in their respective taxation laws

Article 3
GENERAL DEFINITIONS

1. For the purposes of this Agreement, unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) the term “India” means the territory of India and includes the territorial sea and airspace above it, as well as any other maritime zone in which India has sovereign rights, other rights and jurisdiction, according to the Indian law and in accordance with international law, including the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea ;

(b) the term “Iceland” means Iceland and, when used in a geographical sense, means the territory of Iceland, including its territorial sea, and any area beyond the territorial sea within which Iceland, in accordance with international law, exercises jurisdiction or sovereign rights with respect to the sea bed, its subsoil and its superjacent waters, and their natural resources ;

(c) the terms “Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean the Republic of India or Iceland as the context requires ;

(d) the term “person” includes an individual, a company, a body of persons and any other entity which is treated as a taxable unit under the taxation laws in force in the respective Contracting States ;

(e) the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity that is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes ;

(f) the term “enterprise” applies to the carrying on of any business ;

(g) the terms “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State ;

(h) term “international traffic” means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State ;

(i) the term “competent authority*’ means :

(i) in India the Finance Minister, Government of India, or his authorised representative,

(ii) in Iceland : the Minister of Finance or his authorised representative.

(j) the term “national” means :

(i) any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;

(ii) any legal person, partnership or association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State ;

(k) the term “tax” means Indian or Icelandic tax, as the context requires, but shall not include any amount which is payable in respect of any default or omission in relation to the taxes to which this Agreement applies or which represents a penalty or fine imposed relating to those taxes ;

(l) The term “fiscal year” means :

(i) in the case of India: the financial year beginning on the 1st day of April;

(ii) in the case of Iceland : the financial year beginning on the 1st day of January.

2. As regards the application of the Agreement at any time by a Contracting State any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning that it has at that time under the law of that State for the purposes of the taxes to which the Agreement applies, any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.

Article 4
RESIDENT

1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature and also includes that State and any political sub-division or local authority thereof. This term, however, does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State.

2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows :

(a) shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him, if he has a permanent home available to him in both States he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests) ;

(b) the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has an habitual abode ;

(c) if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which he is a national ;

(d) if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to settle the question by mutual agreement.

3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which its place of effective management is situated. If the State in which its place of effective management is situated cannot be determined, then the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to settle the question by mutual agreement.


Article 5
PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENT

1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

2. The term “permanent establishment” includes especially ;

(a) a place of management ;

(b) a branch ;

(c) an office ;

(d) a factory ;

(e) a workshop ;

(f) a sales outlet ;

(g) a warehouse in relation to a person providing storage facilities for others ;

(h) farm, plantation other place where agricultural forestry, plantation or related activities are carried on; and

(i) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources.

3. (a) A building site or construction, installation or assembly project or supervisory activities in connection therewith constitutes a permanent establishment only if such site, project or activities last more than 9 months.

(b) The furnishing of services, including consultancy services, by an enterprise through employees or other personnel engaged by the enterprise for such purpose constitutes a permanent establishment, but only where activities of that nature continue (for the same or connected project) within the country for a period or periods aggregating more than 90 days within any 12 month period.

4. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article the term “permanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include :

(a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage or display of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise ;

(b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage or display ;

(c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise ;

(d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information for the enterprise ;

(e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character ;

(f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in sub-paragraphs (a) to (e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.

5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 7 applies is acting in a Contracting State on behalf of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the first-mentioned Contracting State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, if such a person :

(a) has and habitually exercises in that State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph; or

(b) has no such authority, but habitually maintains in the first-mentioned State a stock of goods or merchandise from which he regularly delivers goods or merchandise on behalf of the enterprise; or

(c) habitually secures orders in the first-mentioned State, wholly or almost wholly for the enterprise itself.

6. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, an insurance enterprise of a Contracting State shall, except in regard to re-insurance, be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State if it collects premiums in the territory of that other State or insures risks situated therein through a person other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 7 applies.

7. An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business. However, when the activities of such an agent are devoted wholly or almost wholly on behalf of that enterprise, he will not be considered an agent of an independent status within the meaning of this paragraph.

8. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.


Article 6
INCOME FROM IMMOVABLE PROPERTY
1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. The term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships, boats and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services

Article 7
BUSINESS PROFITS
1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.

3. In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere, in accordance with the provisions of and subject to the limitations of the tax laws of that State. However, no such deduction shall be allowed in respect of amounts, if any, paid (otherwise than towards reimbursement of actual expenses) by the permanent establishment to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other offices, by way of royalties, fees or other similar payments in return for the use of patents, know-how or other rights, or by way of commission or other charges for specific services performed or for management, or, except in the case of banking enterprises, by way of interest on moneys lent to the permanent establishment. Likewise, no account shall be taken, in the determination of the profits of a permanent establishment, for amounts charged (otherwise than towards reimbursement of actual expenses), by the permanent establishment to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other offices, by way of royalties, fees or other similar payments in return for the use of patents, know-how or other rights, or by way of commission or other charges for specific services performed or for management, or, except in the case of a banking enterprise, by way of interest on moneys lent to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other offices.

4. Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary; the method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.

5. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

6. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

7. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Agreement, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.


Article 8
SHIPPING AND AIR TRANSPORT

1. Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State.

2. If the place of effective management of a shipping enterprise is aboard a ship, then it shall be deemed to be situated in the Contracting State in which the home harbour of the ship is situated, or, if there is no such home harbour, in the Contracting State of which the operator of the ship is a resident.

3. Profits derived by a transportation enterprise which is a resident of a Contracting State from the use, maintenance, or rental of containers (including trailers and other equipment for the transport of containers) used for the transport of goods or merchandise in international traffic shall be taxable only in that Contracting State unless the containers are used solely within the other Contracting State.

4 The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.


Article 9
ASSOCIATED ENTERPRISES

1. Where
(a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or

(b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State, and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

2. Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of the State and taxes accordingly profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Agreement and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

Article 10
DIVIDENDS

1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends. This paragraph shall not, affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

3. The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares or other rights, not being debt claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on the company’s undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.


Article 11
INTEREST

1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises, and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the interest is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, interest arising in a Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that State, provided that it is derived and beneficially owned by :

(a) the Government, a political sub-division or a local authority of the other Contracting State; or

(b) (i) in the case of India, the Reserve Bank of India, the Export-Import Bank of India or the National Housing Bank; and

(ii) in the case of Iceland, the Central Bank of Iceland; or

(c) any other institution as may be agreed upon from time to time between the competent authorities of the Contracting States through exchange of letters.

4. The term “interest” as used in this Article means income from debt claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor’s profits, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures. Penalty charges for late payment shall not be regarded as interest for the purpose of this Article.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

6. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.


Article 12
ROYALTIES AND FEES FOR TECHNICAL SERVICES

1. Royalties or fees for technical services arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such royalties or fees for technical services may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise, and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties or fees for technical services is a resident of the other Contracting State the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties or fees for technical services.

3. (a) The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films or films or tapes used for television or radio broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.

(b) The term “fees for technical services” as used in this Article means payments of any kind, other than those mentioned in Articles 14 and 15 of this Agreement as consideration for managerial or technical or consultancy services, including the provision of services of technical or other personnel.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties or fees for technical services being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties or fees for technical services arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties or fees for technical services are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5 (a) Royalties and fees for technical services shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself a political sub-division, a local authority, or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties or fees for technical services, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the royalties or fees for technical services was incurred, and such royalties or fees for technical services are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties or fees for technical services shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

(b) Where under sub-paragraph (a) royalties or fees for technical services do not arise in one of the Contracting States, and the royalties relate to the use of, or the right to use, the right or property, or the fees for technical services relate to services performed, in one of the Contracting States, the royalties or fees for technical services shall be deemed to arise in that Contracting State.

6. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties or fees for technical services, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

Article 13
CAPITAL GAINS

1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.

3. Gains from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic, or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

4. Gains from the alienation of shares of the capital stock of a company the property of which consists directly or indirectly principally of immovable property situated in a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.

5. Gains from the alienation of shares other than those mentioned in paragraph 4 in a company which is a resident of a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.

6. Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.


Article 14
INDEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

1. Income derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State from the performance of professional services or other independent activities of a similar character shall be taxable only in that State except in the following circumstances when such income may also be taxed in the other Contracting State:

(a) if he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities, in that case, only so much of the income as is attributable to that fixed base may be taxed in that other State; or

(b) if his stay in the other Contracting State is for a period or periods amounting to or exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any period of 12 months, in that case, only so much of the income as is derived from his activities performed in that other State may be taxed in that other State.

2. The term “professional services” includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, surgeons, dentists and accountants. 

Article 15
DEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18, 19, 20 and 21, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived there from may be taxed in that other State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if :

(a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned; &

(b) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State; and

(c) the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic, by an enterprise of a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.

Article 16
DIRECTORS’ FEES

Directors’ fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the Board of Directors in a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

Article 17
ARTISTES AND SPORTS PERSONS

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsperson, from personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsperson in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsperson himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsperson are exercised.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, shall not apply to income from activities performed in a Contracting State by entertainers or sportspersons if the activities are substantially supported by public funds of one or both of the Contracting States or of political sub-divisions or local authorities thereof. In such a case, the income shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the entertainer or sportsperson is a resident.


Article 18
PENSIONS
Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration paid to a resident of a Contracting State in consideration of past employment shall be taxable only in that State.

Article 19
GOVERNMENT SERVICE
1. (a) Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or sub-division or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

(b) However, such salaries, wages and other similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who :

(i) is a national of that State; or

(ii) did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.

2.  (a) Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or sub-division or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

(b) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of that State.

3. The provisions of Articles 15, 16, 17 and 18 shall apply to salaries, wages and other similar remuneration and to pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof.

Article 20
PROFESSORS, TEACHERS AND RESEARCH SCHOLARS
1. A professor, teacher or research scholar who is or was a resident of the Contracting State immediately before visiting the other Contracting State for the purpose of teaching or engaging in research, or both, at a university, college or other similar approved institution in that other Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that other State on any remuneration for such teaching or research for a period not exceeding two years from the date of his arrival in that other State.

2. This Article shall apply to income from research only if such research is undertaken by the individual in the public interest and not primarily for the benefit of some private person or persons.

3. For the purposes of this Article, an individual shall be deemed to be a resident of a Contracting State if he is resident in that State in the fiscal year in which he visits the other Contracting State or in the immediately preceding fiscal year.

Article 21
STUDENTS
1. A student who is or was a resident of one of the Contracting States immediately before visiting the other Contracting State and who is present in that other Contracting State solely for the purpose of his education or training, shall besides grants, loans and scholarships be exempt from tax in that other State on:

(a) payments made to him by persons residing outside that other State for the purposes of his maintenance, education or training; and

(b) remuneration from employment in that other State to the extent that it does not exceed the amount which is exempt from tax under the laws of that other Contracting State for any fiscal year; provided that such employment is directly related to his studies or is undertaken for the purposes of his maintenance.

2. The benefits of this Article shall extend only for such period of time as may be reasonable or customarily required to complete the education or training undertaken, but in no event shall any individual have the benefits of this Article for more than six consecutive years from the date of his first arrival in that other State.


Article 22
OTHER INCOME
1. Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Agreement shall be taxable only in that State.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, if a resident of a Contracting State derives income from sources within the other Contracting State in form of lotteries, crossword puzzles, races including horse races, card games and other games of any sort or gambling or betting of any nature whatsoever, such income may be taxed in the other Contracting State.

Article 23
METHODS FOR ELIMINATION OF DOUBLE TAXATION

Double taxation shall be eliminated as follows:

1.  In India :

(a) Where a resident of India derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, may be taxed in Iceland, India shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the tax paid in Iceland.

Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that portion of the tax as computed before the deduction is given which is attributable, as the case may be, to the income which may be taxed in Iceland.

(b) Where in accordance with any provision of the Agreement income derived by a resident of India is exempt from tax in India, India may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income of such resident, take into account the exempted income.

2.  In Iceland :
(a) Where a resident of Iceland derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, may be taxed in India, Iceland shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the tax paid in India.

Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that portion of the tax as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable, as the case may be, to the income which may be taxed in India.

(b) Where in accordance with any provision of the Agreement, income derived by a resident of Iceland is exempt from tax in Iceland, Iceland may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income of such resident, take into account the exempted income.


Article 24
LIMITATION OF BENEFITS
1. Except as otherwise provided in this Article, a person (other than an individual), which is a resident of a Contracting State and which derives income from the other Contracting State shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Agreement otherwise accorded to residents of a Contracting State only if such a person is a qualified person as defined in paragraph 2 and meets the other conditions of this Agreement for the obtaining of any of such benefits.

2. A person of a Contracting State is a qualified person for a fiscal year only if such a person is either:

(a) governmental entity; or

(b) a company incorporated in either of the Contracting States, if

(i) the principal class of its shares is listed on a recognised stock exchange as defined in paragraph 5 of this Article are is regularly trad on, one or more recognised stock exchanges; or

(ii) at least 50% of the aggregate vote or value of the shares in the company is owned directly or indirectly by one or more individual residents of either of the Contracting States or/and by other persons incorporated in either of the Contracting States, at least 50% of the aggregate vote or value of the shares or beneficial interest of which is owned directly or indirectly by one or more individual residents of either of the Contracting States; or

(c) a partnership or association of persons, at least 50% of whose beneficial interests is owned by one or more individuals residents of either of the Contracting States or/and by other persons incorporated in either of the Contracting States, at least 50% of the aggregate vote or value of the shares or beneficial interest of which is owned directly or indirectly by one or more individual residents of either of the Contracting States ; or

(d) a charitable institution or other tax exempt entity whose main activities are carried on in either of the Contracting States ;

provided that the persons mentioned above will not be entitled to the benefits of the Agreement if more than 50% of the person’s gross income for the taxable year is paid or payable directly or indirectly to persons who are not residents of either of the Contracting States in the form of payments that are deductible for the purpose of computation of tax covered by this Agreement in the person’s State of residence (but not including arm’s length payment in the ordinary course of business for services’ or tangible property and payments in respect of financial obligations to a bank incurred in connection with a transaction entered into with the permanent establishment of the bank situated in either of the Contracting States).

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply and a resident of a Contracting State will be entitled to benefits of the Agreement with respect to an item of income derived from the other Contracting State, if the person actively carries on business in the State of residence (other than the business of making or managing investments for the resident’s own account unless these activities are banking, insurance or security activities) and the income derived from the other Contracting States is derived in connection with or is incidental to that business and that resident satisfies the other conditions of this Agreement for the obtaining of such benefits.

4. A resident of a Contracting State shall nevertheless be granted the benefits of the Agreement if the competent authority of the other Contracting State determines that the establishment or acquisition or maintenance of such person and the conduct of its operations did not have as one of its principal purposes the obtaining of benefits under the Agreement.

5. For the purposes of this Article the term “recognised stock exchange” means

(a) in India :

(i) the National Stock Exchange ;

(ii) the Bombay Stock Exchange ;

(iii) any other stock exchange recognised by the Securities and Exchange Board of India ;

(b) in Iceland :

(i) the Icelandic stock exchange ;

(ii) the stock exchanges of Amsterdam, Brussels, Copenhagen, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Helsinki, London, Oslo, Paris, Stockholm, Sydney, Tokyo and Toronto; and

(c) any other stock exchange which the competent authorities agree to recognise for the purposes of this 

Article.
6. Notwithstanding anything contained in paragraphs 2 to 5 above, any person shall not be entitled to the benefits of this Agreement, if its affairs were arranged in such a manner as if it was the main purpose or one of the main purposes to avoid taxes to which this Agreement applies.

Article 25
NON-DISCRIMINATION
1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith, which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected. This provision shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 1, also apply to persons who are not residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities. This provision shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, relief’s and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.

3. Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 7 of Article 11, or paragraph 7 of Article 12, apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned State similarly, any debts of an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable capital of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been contracted to a resident of the first-mentioned State.

4. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State are or may be subjected.

5. The provisions of this Article shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article: 2, apply to taxes of every kind and description.



Article 26
MUTUAL AGREEMENT PROCEDURE
1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 25, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national. The case must be presented within three years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement.

2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Agreement. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the domestic law of the Contracting States.

3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Agreement. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Agreement.

4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs. When it seems advisable in order to reach agreement to have an oral exchange of opinions, such exchange may take place through a Commission consisting of representatives of the competent authorities of the Contracting States.

Article 27
EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION
1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information (including documents or certified copies of the documents) as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or of the domestic laws concerning taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the Contracting States, or of their political sub-divisions or local authorities insofar as the taxation there under is not contrary to the Agreement. The exchange of information is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2.

2. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to the taxes referred to in the first sentence of paragraph 1. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.

3. In no case shall the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation.

(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State ;

(b) to supply information (including documents or certified copies of the documents) which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State ;

(c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (order public).

4. If information is requested by a Contracting State in accordance with this Article, the other Contracting State shall use its information gathering measures to obtain the requested information, even though that other State may not need such information for its own tax purposes. The obligation contained in the preceding sentence is subject to the limitations of paragraph 3 but in no case shall such limitations be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because it has no domestic interest in such information.

5. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 3 be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because the information is held by a bank, other financial institution, nominee or person acting in an agency or a fiduciary capacity or because it relates to ownership interests in a person.

Article 28
ASSISTANCE IN THE COLLECTION OF TAXES

1. The Contracting States shall lend assistance to each other in the collection of revenue claims. This assistance is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may by mutual agreement settle the mode of application of this Article.

2. The term “revenue claim” as used in this Article means an amount owed in respect of taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the Contracting States, or of their political sub-divisions or local authorities, insofar as the taxation there under is not contrary to this Agreement of any other instrument to which the Contracting States are parties, as well as interest, administrative penalties and costs of collection or conservancy related to such amount.

3. When a revenue claim of a Contracting State is enforceable under the laws of that State and is owed by a person who, at that time, cannot, under the laws of that State, prevent its collection, that revenue claim shall, at the request of the competent authority of that State, be accepted for purposes of collection by the competent authority of the other Contracting State. That revenue claim shall be collected by that other State in accordance with the provisions of its laws applicable to the enforcement and collection of its own taxes as if the revenue claim were a revenue claim of that other State.

4. When a revenue claim of a Contracting State is a claim in respect of which that State may, under its law, take measures of conservancy with a view to ensure its collection, that revenue claim shall, at the request of the competent authority of that State, be accepted for purposes of taking measures of conservancy by the competent authority of the other Contracting State. That other State shall take measures of conservancy in respect of that revenue claim in accordance with the provisions of its laws as if the revenue claim were a revenue claim of that other State even if, at the time when such measures are applied, the revenue claim is not enforceable in the first-mentioned State or is owed by a person who has a right to prevent its collection.

5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4, a revenue claim accepted by a Contracting State for the purposes of paragraph 3 or 4 shall not, in that State, be subject to the time limits or accorded any priority applicable to a revenue claim under the laws of that State by reason of its nature as such. In addition, a revenue claim accepted by a Contracting State for the purposes of paragraph 3 or 4 shall not, in that State, have any priority applicable to that revenue claim under the laws of the other Contracting State.

6. Proceedings with respect to the existence, validity or the amount of a revenue claim of a Contracting State shall only be brought before the courts or administrative bodies of that State. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as creating or providing any right to such proceedings before any court or administrative body of the other Contracting State.

7. Where, at any time after a request has been made by a Contracting State under paragraph 3 or 4 and before the other Contracting State has collected and remitted the relevant revenue claim to the first-mentioned State, the relevant revenue claim ceases to be :

(a) in the case of a request under paragraph 3, a revenue claim of the first-mentioned State that is enforceable under the laws of that State and is owed by a person who, at that time, cannot, under the laws of that State, prevent its collection, or

(b) in the case of a request under paragraph 4, a revenue claim of the first-mentioned State in respect of which that State may, under its laws, take measures of conservancy with a view to ensure its collection, the competent authority of the first-mentioned State shall promptly notify the competent authority of the other State of that fact and, at the option of the other State, the first-mentioned State shall either suspend or withdraw its request.

8. In no case shall the provisions of this Article be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation :

(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State ;

(b) to carry out measures which would be contrary to public policy (order public) ;

(c) to provide assistance if the other Contracting State has not pursued all reasonable measures of collection or conservancy, as the case may be, available under its laws or administrative practice ;

(d) to provide assistance in those cases where the administrative burden for that State is clearly disproportionate to the benefit to be derived by the other Contracting State.


Article 29
MEMBERS OF DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND CONSULAR POSTS

Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of diplomatic missions or consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

Article 30
ENTRY INTO FORCE
1. The Contracting States shall notify each other in writing, through diplomatic channels, of the completion of the procedures required by the respective laws for the entry into force of this Agreement.

2. This Agreement shall enter into force on the date of the later of the notifications referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.

3. The provisions of this Agreement shall have effect :
(a) in India:

(i)  with respect to taxes withheld at source, for amounts paid or credited on or after 1st April of the calendar year next following that in which the Agreement enters into force; and

(ii) with respect to taxes on income for any fiscal year beginning on or after 1st April of the calendar year next following that in which the Agreement enters into force ;

(b) in Iceland :

(i)  in respect of taxes withheld at source, on income derived on or after 1st January in the calendar year next following the year in which the later notice is given ;

(ii) in respect of other taxes on income, for taxes chargeable for any tax year beginning on or after 1st January in the calendar year next following the year in which the later notice is given.


Article 31
TERMINATION
This Agreement shall remain in force indefinitely until terminated by a Contracting State. Either Contracting State may terminate the Agreement, through diplomatic channels, by giving notice of termination at least six months before the end of any calendar year beginning after the expiration of five years from the date of entry into force of the Agreement In such event, the Agreement shall cease to have effect :

(a) in India :

(i)  with respect to taxes withheld at source, for amounts paid or credited on or after 1st April of the calendar year next following that in which the notice of termination of the Agreement is given; and

(ii) with respect to taxes on income for any fiscal year beginning on or after 1st April of the calendar year next following that in which the notice of termination of the Agreement is given ;

(b) in Iceland :

(i)  in respect of taxes withheld at source, on income derived on or after 1st January in the calendar year next following the year in which the notice is given ;

(ii) in respect of other taxes on income, for taxes chargeable for any tax year beginning on or after 1st January in the calendar year next following the year in which the notice is given.

In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorized thereto, have signed this Agreement.

Done in duplicate at New Delhi on this Twenty-third day of November 2007, each in the Hindi, Icelandic and English languages, all texts being equally authentic In case of divergence of interpretation, the English text shall prevail.

PROTOCOL
TO
THE AGREEMENT
BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDIA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF ICELAND
FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT

TO TAXES ON INCOME

At the moment of signing the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of Iceland for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income, the undersigned have agreed that the following provisions shall form an integral part of the Agreement.

I.  Ad Article 2 Paragraph 2
The Icelandic social security charge “Tryggingargjald” shall not be regarded as “taxes on the total amounts of wages or salaries paid by enterprises.”


II.  Ad Article 8
For the purposes of this Article and within the meaning of paragraph 14 of the OECD Commentary (2005) on Article 8, interest on investments directly connected with the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be regarded as profits derived from the operation of such ships or aircraft if they are integral to the carrying on of such business, and the provisions of Article 11 shall not apply in relation to such interest.

III. Ad Article 10 (Dividends), 11 (Interest), 12 (Royalties and Fees for Technical Services), or 13 (Capital Gains)
A corporation of one of the Contracting States deriving dividends, interest, royalties, or capital gains from sources within the other Contracting States shall not be entitled to the benefits of Article 10 (Dividends), 11 (Interest), 12 (Royalties and Fees for Technical Services), or 13 (Capital Gains) if ;

(a) By reason of special measures the tax imposed on such corporation by the first-mentioned Contracting State with respect to such dividends, interest, royalties, or capital gains is substantially less than the tax generally imposed by such Contracting State on corporate profits; and

(b)        25 percent or more of the capital of such corporation is held of record or is otherwise determined, after consultation between the competent authorities of the Contracting States, to be owned directly or indirectly, by one or more persons who are not individual residents of the first-mentioned Contracting State.

IV. Ad Article 25 Paragraph 2
The provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 25 of this Agreement, shall not be construed as preventing a Contracting State from charging the profits of a permanent establishment which a company of the other Contracting State has in the first-mentioned State at a rate of tax which is higher than that imposed on the profits of a similar company of the first-mentioned Contracting State, nor as being in conflict with the provisions of paragraph 3 of Article 7. It is also provided that in no case the differences in the two rates, referred to above will exceed 10 percentage points.

In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorized thereto, have signed this Protocol.

Done in duplicate at New Delhi on this Twenty-third day of November 2007, each in the Hindi, Icelandic and English languages, all texts being equally authentic. In case of divergence of interpretation, the English text shall prevail.

Words ‘any other form of indebtedness’ from sources in the other territory could only mean interest arising or accruing as a separate ‘source’ of income -CITv.Visakhapatnam Port Trust [1983] 144 ITR 146 (AP).

Mere supply of a plant by a foreign company whose assembly and erection are undertaken by purchaser under supervision of engineer deputed by supplier does not amount to foreign company having a ‘permanent establishment’ - CIT v.Visakhapatnam Port Trust [1983] 144 ITR 146 (AP).

A sub-contractor cannot be treated as an agent within meaning of article II(1)(i)(dd) of Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement between Federal Republic of Germany and India - CIT v.Visakhapatnam Port Trust [1983] 144 ITR 146 (AP).

Where supplier of machinery had a permanent establishment in Germany where press was manufactured and certain services were rendered in connection with setting up of that press in India, this could not be treated as personal service in any way even if agreement for rendering service was embodied in a separate agreement; as such in view of agreement for avoidance of double taxation between Germany and India, tax was not deductible at source from amount paid to German company for such services - Andrew Yule & Co. Ltd. v. CIT [1994] 207 ITR 899 (Cal.).

Fees for technical services is industrial or commercial profit and, therefore, would be entitled to exemption as per article III of DTA between India and Germany - AEG Telefunken v. CIT [1998] 233 ITR 129/101 Taxman 109 (Kar.).

In case of a non-resident, who is a resident of Germany, income arising to him in India by way of royalties or technical charges could be taxed in India—Dy. CIT v. UHDE GmbH [1996] 54 TTJ (Bom. - Trib.) 355.

Expression ‘laws in force’ occurring in Article XVI, para 1 of Agreement for Avoidance of Double Taxation between India and Federal German Republic, must mean the laws in force at the time the construction of a term is to be done and the term is not restricted to the law in force at the time of execution of the Agreement—ITO v. Leonhardt Andra UND Partner [1987] 21 ITD 607 (Cal. - Trib.).

Where assessee German resident had adopted calendar year for his assessment in Germany, for purpose of assessment of his income in India also, same should be taken as previous year in view of article II(1)(g) of Agreement for Avoidance of Double Taxation between Germany and India and financial year could not be taken as previous year on ground that he did not maintain accounts—M.G.K. Blum v. Second ITO [1984] 7 ITD 643 (Bang. - Trib.).

Where assessee was not concerned with actual installation of plant but mere supervision of same, which was not same thing as installation of project, assessee could not be said to be having a permanent establishment in India within the meaning of article II(1)(h)(cc) of AADT between Germany and India—UDHE GmbH v. Dy. CIT [1997] 57 TTJ (Mum. - Trib.) 447.

Where under supply and service agreement with Indian company for establishing a fertiliser project, assessee, a West German company, purchased bulk material for Indian company and charged from Indian company cost plus 4 per cent as procurement fee, procurement fee was not assessable as royalty and fee for technical services but was to be treated as industrial and commercial profit which was not taxable in view of Double Taxation Agreement between India and West Germany—Linde A.G. v. ITO [1997] 62 ITD 330 (Mum. - Trib.).

There is no merit in contention that only that amount of royalty that was derived from the operation of a mine, quarry, or any other extraction of natural resources as stated in article IX of the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement alone was to be excluded from industrial and commercial profits and there being no provision for exclusion of other kinds of royalties, any other receipt of royalty was not subject to taxation. As provided in article XVI(I), the law of respective States shall apply unless contrary is provided in the DTA. It means that if there was no provision for the treatment to be given to the royalty, other than the royalty under Article IX of the DTA, the same would be subject to Indian taxation and taxable in India under section 9(1)(viii) of the Act. DTA does not provide that any receipt, which does not fall in any of the clauses, would be taxable under the Income-tax Act or would be excluded from the purview of Indian taxation—G.U.J. Jaeger GmbH v. ITO [1991] 37 ITD 64 (Bom. - Trib.).

The contention that the consideration pertaining to the provision of recurring know-how would also be a part of industrial and commercial profits has no force. It would be in the nature of royalty and there being a specific exclusion of royalty from the definition of “industrial and commercial profits”, by Article III(3) of DTA, it would not enjoy the exemption on the ground that the assessee had no permanent establishment in India—G.U.J. Jaeger GmbH v. ITO [1991] 37 ITD 64 (Bom. - Trib.).

Rendering of consultancy service in India by non-resident in connection with industrial project would not amount to doing industrial or commercial activity within meaning of Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement between Federal Republic of Germany and India so as to make section 195 inapplicable to payments made by assessee to non-resident—Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilisers Co. Ltd. v. ITO [1982] 2 ITD 515 (Ahd.).

Under no circumstances executive authority can make an item of income as of taxable nature with retrospective effect if the same is not provided in the protocol - Tata Iron & Steel Co. Ltd. v. Dy. CIT [1990] 100 Taxman 51 (Mag.)/62 TTJ (Mum.) 17.

Words ‘subject to the provisions of paragraph (3)’ in article III(1) of Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (between Federal Republic of Germany and India) would indicate that while ‘industrial or commercial income’ of the foreign enterprise are not taxable in India, the rents, royalties, interest, dividends, etc., derived by the foreign enterprise from sources in India are taxable—CIT v. Visakhapatnam Port Trust [1983] 144 ITR 146 (AP).

Words ‘any other form of indebtedness’ from sources in the other income could only mean interest arising or accruing as a separate ‘source’ of income—CITv. Visakhapatnam Port Trust [1983] 144 ITR 146 (AP).

Mere supply of a plant by a foreign company whose assembly and erection are undertaken by purchaser under supervision of engineer deputed by supplier does not amount to foreign company having a ‘permanent establishment’—CIT v. Visakhapatnam Port Trust [1983] 144 ITR 146 (AP).

A sub-contractor cannot be treated as an agent within meaning of article II(I)(i)(dd) of Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement between Federation Republic of Germany and India—CIT v. Visakhapatnam Port Trust [1983] 144 ITR 146 (AP).

Where supplier of machinery had a permanent establishment in Germany where press was manufactured and certain services were rendered in connection with setting up of that press in India, this could not be treated as personal service in any way even if agreement for rendering service was embodied in a separate agreement; as such in view of agreement for avoidance of double taxation between Germany and India, tax was not deductible at source from amount paid to German company for such services—Andrew Yule & Co. Ltd. v. CIT [1994] 207 ITR 899 (Cal.).

Amendment to 1959/60 DTAA between India and Federal Republic of Germany by GSR No. 680(E), dated 26-8-1985 could not be made effective from 1-4-1984—Tata Iron & Steel Co. Ltd. v. Dy. CIT [1998] 100 Taxman 51 (Mum. - Trib.) (Tax. Mag.).

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